Having know the definition of OR, it is easy to visualize the scope of operation research.
When we broaden the scope of OR,
we find that is has really been practiced for hundreds of years even before World War II.
Whenever there is a problem of optimization, there is scope for the application of OR.
Its techniques have been used in a wide range of situation, all are listed as under,
Let,s discuss one by one,
1) In Industry
In the field of industrial management,
- there is of chain of problems starting from the purchase of raw materials to the dispatch of finished goods.
- The management is interested in having an overall view of the method of optimizing profits.
- In order to take decision in scientific basis, OR team will have to consider various alternative methods of producing the goods and the return in each case.
- OR has been successfully applied in industry in the fields of
production, blending, product mix, inventory control, demand forecast, sale and purchase, transportation, repair and maintenance, scheduling and sequencing,
panning, scheduling and control and control of projects and scores of other associated areas.
2) In Defence
- OR has a wide scope for application in defense operations.
- In modern warfare the defense operations are carried out by a number of different agencies, namely air-force, army and navy.
- The activities performed by each of them can be further divided into sub-activities viz,
operations, intelligence, administration, training and the like.
- There is thus a need to coordinate the various activities involved in order to arrive at optimum strategy and to achieve consistent goals.
- Operations research, conducted by team of experts from all the associated fields, can be quite helpful to achieve the desired results.
- In developing economies, there is a great scope of developing an OR approach towards planning.
- The basic problem is to orient the planning so that there is maximum growth of per capital income in the shortest possible time, by taking into consideration the national goals and restrictions imposed by the country.
- The basic problem in most of the countries in Asia and Africa is to remove poverty and hunger as quickly as possible.
- There is a great scope for economists, statisticians, administrators, technicians, politicians and agriculture experts working together to solve this problem with an OR approach.
- Operation research approach needs to be equally developed in agriculture sector on national or international basis.
- With population explosion and consequent of food, every country is facing the problem of optimum allocation of land to various crops in accordance with climatic conditions and available facilities.
- The problem of optimal distribution of water from the various water resources is faced by each developing country and a good amount of scientific work can be done in this directions.
5) Public Utilities
- OR methods can also be applied in big hospitals to reduce waiting time of out-door patients and to solve the administrative problems.
- This method directly applicable to business and society.
It is increasingly being applied in L.I.C offices to decide the premium rates of various policies.
- It has also been extensively used in petroleum, paper, chemical, metal processing, aircraft, rubber, transport and distribution, mining and textile industries.
- It also applicable to big and small organizations.
Whenever a departmental store faces a problem like employing additional sales girls, purchasing an additional van etc.
- Techniques of OR can be applied to minimize cost and maximize benefit for each such decision.